Gold and the Argonauts of 1849 by Ella M. Sexton
California has well earned her name of "Golden State," for from her
rich mines gold to the value of thirteen hundred millions has been
taken. Yet every year she adds seventeen millions more to the world's
stock of gold. No country has produced more of this precious yellow
metal that men work and fight and die for. The "gold belt" of the
state still holds great wealth for miners to find in years to come.
Long, long ago people knew that gold was here, for in 1510 a Spanish
novel speaks of "that island of California where a great abundance
of gold and precious stones is found." In 1841 the Indians near San
Fernando Mission washed out gold from the river-sands, and other mines
were found not far from Los Angeles.
But James W. Marshall was the man who started the great excitement
of '48 and '49 by finding small pieces of gold at a place now called
Coloma, on the American River. Marshall, who was born in New Jersey,
came to this state in 1847, and being a builder wished to put up
houses, sawmills, and flour-mills. Finding that lumber was very
dear, he decided to build a sawmill to exit up the great trees on the
river-bank. He had no money, but John A. Sutter, knowing a mill was
needed there, gave Marshall enough to start with.
So the mill was built, and when it was ready to run Marshall found
that the mill-race, or ditch for carrying the water to his mill-wheel,
was not deep enough. He turned a strong current of water into it,
and this ran all night. Then it was shut off, and next day the ditch
showed where the stream had washed it deeper and had left a heap
of sand and gravel at the end of it. Here Marshall saw some shining
little stones, and picking them up he laid one on a rock and hammered
it with another till he saw how quickly it changed its shape. He was
sure that these bright, heavy, easily hammered pebbles were gold, but
the men working about the mill would not believe it. So he went to
Sutter, who lived near at a place called Sutter's Fort, because his
stores, house, and other buildings were built around a hollow square
with high walls outside to keep off the Indians. Sutter weighed the
little yellow lumps and said they certainly were gold.
The flood-gates between the mill-race and the river were opened again,
and water ran through the ditch, washing more gold in sight. Sutter
picked up enough of this to make a ring and had these words marked on
"The first gold found in California, January, 1848."
Both Sutter and Marshall tried to keep what they had found a secret,
but that was impossible, and soon people were flocking to the
gold-fields. Then began a wild excitement known as the "gold-fever,"
and men left their stores and houses, gave up business, and left crops
ungathered in a wild chase after nuggets of gold.
By December of 1848, thousands of miners were washing for gold
all along the foot-hills from the Tuolumne River to the Feather,
a distance of 150 miles. A hundred thousand men came to California
during 1849, these Argonauts, or gold-hunters, taking ship or steamer
for the long trip from New York by the Isthmus of Panama. Some went
round Cape Horn, or else made a weary journey overland across the
plains. "To the land of gold" was their motto, and these pioneers
endured every hardship to reach this "Golden State."
PLACER GOLD MINING.
Washing with Cradle.
Then the miners, with pick, shovel, and pan for washing out gold from
the gravel it was found in, started out "prospecting" for "pay-dirt."
The gold-diggings were usually along the rivers, and this surface, or
"placer," mining was done by shovelling the "pay-dirt" into a pan or a
wooden box called a cradle, and rocking or shaking this box from side
to side while pouring water over the earth. The heavy gold, either
in fine scales or dust, or in lumps called nuggets, dropped to the
bottom, while the loose earth ran out in a muddy stream. The rich sand
left in pan or cradle was carefully washed again and again till only
precious, shining gold remained.
So rich were some of the sand bars along the American and Feather
rivers that the first miners made a thousand dollars a day even by
this careless way of washing gold where much of it was lost. Then
again for days or weeks the miner found nothing at all. He would
wander up and down the cañons and gulches, prospecting for another
claim, and dreaming day and night of finding a stream with golden
sands, or of picking up rich nuggets. If he found good "diggings" he
would build a rough shanty under the pines, and dig and wash till the
gold-bearing sand or gravel gave out again. Sometimes he had a partner
and a donkey, or burro, to carry tools and pack supplies. More often
the Argonaut cooked his own bacon and slapjacks and simmered his beans
over a lonely camp-fire, and slept wrapped in a blanket under the
trees. If he had much gold, he would go to the nearest town, buy food
enough for another prospecting tramp, and often spend all the rest of
his money in foolish waste.
Sometimes a company of miners would build a dam across a river or
stream, and turn it from its course, so they could dig out and wash
the rich gravel in the river-bed. A flume, or ditch, would often carry
all the water to a lower part of the river, leaving the bed of the
upper stream dry for miles. In this kind of mining the "pay-dirt" was
shovelled into long wooden boxes called sluices, and a constant stream
of water kept the gravel and earth moving on out to a dumping-place.
The gold dropped down or settled into riffles, or spaces between bars
placed across the bottom of the sluices, and once a week the water was
turned off and a "clean-up" made of the gold.
It was not long before the rivers, creeks, and gulches had all been
worked over and most of the gold taken out. The miners knew that this
loose gold had been washed out of the hills by the rains and storms of
countless years. So some one thought of using a heavy stream of water
to break down the foot-hills themselves and to carry the gold-bearing
gravel to sluice boxes. This is called hydraulic mining and is the
cheapest way of handling earth, as water does all the work and
very little shovelling is needed. But since a strong water-power is
necessary, a large reservoir and miles of ditches or wooden flumes
must be built, so the first expense is large. The water usually comes
from higher up in the mountains, and is forced under great pressure
through iron pipes, the nozzle or "giant" being directed at the
hillside, which has already been shattered by heavy blasts of powder.
The water tears thousands of tons of earth and gravel apart, and the
muddy stream flows through sluices, where the gold is left. In this
kind of mining a great quantity of débris, or "tailings," must be
For years this débris was washed into the rivers or on farming lands,
filling up and ruining both, and leading to endless quarrels between
farmers and miners. But at last the courts stopped hydraulic mining
except in northern counties, where débris went into the Klamath River,
upon which no boats could run and near which was little farming. But
all the mines in the Sacramento and San Joaquin river-basins were idle
till, in 1893, Congress appointed a débris Commission. These mining
engineers issue licenses to work the mines when satisfied that the
débris will be kept out of the rivers. There are in the state many
hundred thousand acres of gold-bearing gravel lands yet untouched,
that could be worked by hydraulic mining.
In drift-mining the rich gravel is covered by hard lava rock thrown
up by some old volcanic outburst. Tunnels are driven by blasting with
dynamite, or by drilling under the rock to reach the gravel which
usually lies in the buried channel of an old river. The long drifts,
or tunnels, needed are very expensive and only mine owners with
capital can work these claims.
Richest of all are the quartz mines, where beautiful white rock, rich
with sparkling gold, is found in veins, or "lodes," cropping out of
hillsides or dipping down under the earth. The great "Mother-lode"
of our state runs like an underground wall across Amador, Calaveras,
Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties and has been traced for eighty miles.
Some poor miner usually finds a ledge of quartz-rock and digs down the
way the ledge goes. He puts up a windlass, worked by hand, over the
well-like hole he has dug out, and hoists the ore out in buckets. But
he soon finds, as the hole or shaft goes deeper, that he must timber
the sides to keep them from caving in, that he must have an engine to
raise the ore and a mill to crush the hard rock. So he sells out to a
company of men, who put in costly machinery, deepen the shaft, and by
heavy expenditure get large returns.
The quartz ledges dip and turn, so tunnels and cross-cuts are run to
follow the golden vein, and all these are timbered with heavy wooden
supports to keep the earth and rock from falling in on the men. The
miners work in day and night gangs, using dynamite to break up the
hard rock, and sending ore up in great iron buckets, or in cars if the
tunnel ends in daylight, on the hillside. Sometimes the miners
strike water, and that must be pumped out to keep the mine from being
The ore is crushed by heavy stamps, or hammers, and then mixed with
water and quicksilver. This curious metal, quicksilver, or mercury,
is fond of gold and hunts out every little bit, the two metals mixing
together and making what is called an amalgam. This is heated in an
iron vessel, and the quicksilver goes off in steam or vapor, leaving
the gold free. The quicksilver, being valuable, is saved and used
again, while the gold, now called bullion, is sent to the mint to be
coined into bright twenties, or tens, or five-dollar pieces.
Some of the gold in the crushed ore will not mix with the quicksilver,
and this is treated to a bath of cyanide, a peculiar acid that melts
the gold as water does a lump of sugar. So all of value is saved, and
the worthless "tailings" go to the dump. Even the black sands on the
ocean beach have gold in them. In the desert also there is gold, which
is "dry-washed" by putting the sand into a machine and with a strong
blast of air blowing away all but the heavy scales of gold.
Though the Argonauts of '49 found much wealth in yellow gold, our
"Golden State," on hillsides, in river-beds, or deep down in hidden
quartz ledges, still holds great fortunes waiting to be found.